Jane Austen and the Black Hole. Preface
JANE AUSTEN AND THE BLACK HOLE OF BRITISH HISTORY
Colonial rapacity, holocaust denial and the crisis in biological sustainability
Gideon Maxwell Polya
2008 Second Edition with Preface and Chapter Postscripts revealing horrendous Anglo-American Alliance holocaust commission, holocaust denial, genocide commission, genocide denial and “History ignored yields History repeated”, 1998-2008
PLUS comprehensive, updated INDEX (including a comprehensive Jane Austen Works & Connections INDEX)
First edition (1998). Copyright © Gideon Maxwell Polya, 1998. All rights reserved.
Second edition (2008). Copyright © Gideon Maxwell Polya, 2008. All rights reserved.
This book is copyright. This book may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, translated or transmitted in whole or in part, electronically or otherwise, without the written permission of the author, Gideon Maxwell Polya, except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis and subject to the conditions prescribed by the Copyright Act, 1968.
The author, Dr. Gideon Maxwell Polya, was formerly a Reader/Associate Professor in Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, 3086, Australia. The author of over 100 scientific publications, Dr. Polya was the Executive Director of the Asian-Australian Centre for the Study of Bioactive Medicinal Plant Constituents and the author of “Biochemical Targets of Plant Bioactive Compounds. A pharmacological reference guide to sites of action and biological effects” (Taylor & Francis & CRC Press, London & New York, 2003) and “Body Count. Global avoidable mortality since 1950” (G.M. Polya, Melbourne, 2007).
Published by G.M. Polya, 29 Dwyer Street, Macleod, Melbourne, Victoria, 3085, Australia (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ).
Copies may be purchased from G.M. Polya (price on request).
Printed by Campus Graphics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Melbourne, Victoria 3086, Australia.
Preamble, including Preface to revised and expanded Second Edition [ i ]
1. Introduction - truth, reason, science and history [ 1 ]
2. The editing of Jane Austen’s maternal connections - the Leighs and Brydges [ 8 ]
3. The editing of the Austens and consequences of rustic amusement [ 18 ]
4. Jane Austen’s siblings and their descendants [ 27 ]
5. The editing of Jane Austen’s life [ 33 ]
6. The rare intrusion of humble social reality into Jane Austen’s novels [ 42 ]
7. The sensibility of Jane Austen’s literary contemporaries [ 56 ]
8. The judgement of Jane Austen’s peers and successors [ 66 ]
9. The East India Company, the Black Hole and the conquest of Bengal [ 75 ]
10. The Great Bengal Famine of 1769-1770 [ 88 ]
11. Warren Hastings and the conquest of India [ 99 ]
12. The impeachment of Warren Hastings and the judgement of history [ 106 ]
13. Colonial famine, genocide and ethnocide [ 114 ]
14. The Bengal Famine of 1943-1944 [ 133 ]
15. Pride and Prejudice - Churchill, Science, the Bengal Famine and the Jewish Holocaust [ 148]
16. Global warming and the unthinkable world of 2050 [ 166 ]
17. Antipodean epilogue - the moral dimension of the Lucky Country and the world [ 174 ]
Notes [ 202 ]
Bibliography [ 233 ]
Index [ 263 ]
To my wife Z ,
Daughter Zareena of Abdul and Habiban Lateef,
Sister Munni to Feroza Ainis (Pon), Feroze (Bob), Haroon (Teni), Shireen and Shazran (Caesar, Munna),
Daughter-in-law to John and Robin Polya,
Sister-in-law to Michal (Micky), Rosemary (Gigi), John (Chippy) and David,
Mum to Daniel, Michael and Susannah,
Mother-in-law to Jenn,
Dadi (paternal grandmother) to Will and Emily,
In the forty second year of our married life together.
“The quarrels of popes and kings, with wars or pestilences, in every page; the men all so good-for-nothing, and hardly any women at all - it is very tiresome; and yet I often think it odd that it should be so dull, for a great deal of it must be invention ... and invention is what delights me in other books” [Catherine Morland]
“Historians, you think,” said Miss Tilney, “are not happy in their flights of fancy. They display imagination without raising interest. I am fond of history, and am very well contented to take the false with the true. In the principal facts they have sources of intelligence in former histories and records, which may be as much depended upon, I conclude, as anything that does not actually pass under one’s own observation; and as for the little embellishments you speak of, they are embellishments, and I like them as such. If a speech be well drawn up, I read it with pleasure, by whomsoever it may be made...”
- Catherine Morland discussing History with Eleanor and Henry Tilney in Jane Austen (1818), Northanger Abbey 1
“History is always written wrong, and so always needs to be rewritten.”
- George Santayana (1953), The Life of Reason 2
“The hidden parts of history, the covert sides, are more orderly and rational, but can be seen and understood only if you are told where to look. The holes in history are what make sense of the thing.”
- Aarons and Loftus (1997) 3
“The “control of nature” is a phrase conceived in arrogance, born of the Neanderthal age of biology and philosophy, when it was supposed that nature exists for the convenience of man.”
- Rachel Carson (1964) 4
“From the dawn of consciousness until the middle of our century man had to live with the prospect of his death as an individual; since Hiroshima, mankind as a whole has to live with the prospect of its extinction as a biological species.”
- Arthur Koestler (1974) 5
“We have come into this world to accept it, not merely to know it. We may become powerful by knowledge, but we attain fullness by sympathy.”
- Rabindranath Tagore, quoted by Henry Miller (1992) 6
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
I first became aware of the World War 2 Bengal Famine in about 1995 when I saw the movie “Distant Thunder” directed by the outstanding film-maker Satyajit Ray. 7 The film concluded with the statement that 5 million people had perished in the Bengal Famine. I was well aware of the Jewish Holocaust (6 million victims) – the more so because my father was a Jewish refugee from Nazism 8 . I went to my large personal library but found no record of the Bengal Famine except as a brief, several word entry in a German history encyclopaedia by B. Grun entitled The Timetables of History. A Chronology of World Events Based on Werner Stein’s Kulturfahrplan”. 9 I was appalled that such an immense, man-made catastrophe could occur at the same time as the Jewish Holocaust and with a similar death toll and yet be essentially erased from history and general public perception.
As an academic at a big university I had ready access to a big university library that had an excellent Indian collection. There I found a remarkable collection of Indian and European works dealing with the Bengal Famine. Because 1995 was the 50th anniversary of the end of World War 2, I wrote a succinct account of this atrocity and sent it to Mainstream media, politicians and leading academics around Australia. The response was almost comprehensive silence – the political, media and academic élite of Australia simply did not want to know about a man-made event as big as the Jewish Holocaust and “down to us”.
There were several positive responses to my attempt to inform my fellow countrymen. An Indigenous Australian (Aboriginal) radio station interviewed me for the benefit of their remote Aboriginal listeners - to them the Bengal Famine was just a vastly bigger version of what had happened to Indigenous Australians in the 2 century Aboriginal Genocide. A very prominent Australian Vice Chancellor sent me the opinion he had commissioned from a top Australian academic “expert” on Indian history – unfortunately this academic historian was only concerned to lavish praise on British rule over India. However, arising out of this “national informing process” a very detailed article by me entitled “The Forgotten Holocaust – the 1943 Bengal Famine” was published in a scholarly journal associated with the Macquarie University-based Centre for Holocaust and Genocide Studies in Sydney headed by outstanding genocide scholar Professor Colin Tatz. 10
Senator Christobal Chamarette of the humanitarian and ethical Australian Greens tabled my concerns in a fine speech about the Bengal Famine in the Australian Senate in September 1995, an event about which Australia was informed by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) reporting her speech – an astonishing and rare instance in which a Major Truth actually penetrated the Wall of Silence in Australia, the Land of Flies, Lies and Slies (spin-based untruths). 11 The rest was silence.
A very busy research scientist and academic teacher, I nevertheless considered it my moral obligation to inform people about the “forgotten holocaust”, the man-made Bengal Famine in WW2 British-ruled India. With a background of 3 decades of scientific research and access to a fine Indian collection at the Dietrich Borchardt Library of Melbourne’s La Trobe University, I proceeded to research the Bengali Holocaust in detail. However I quickly found that it was necessary to put this man-made event into a wider historical and cultural context. Thus the 1943-1945 Bengal Famine was the last of a succession of immense famines in British-ruled India that commenced with the man-made 1769-1770 Bengal Famine that killed 10 million Bengalis or one third of the whole population a mere dozen years after British conquest of Bengal at the Battle of Plassey (1757). However this catastrophe was also largely deleted from British History – this intellectual crime against Humanity being effected by successive generations of passively lying British academics, politicians and journalists.
At this point serendipity intervened. My dear wife Zareena is of Bengali and Bihari origin (her grandparents having all been “5-year slaves” of the British in Fiji towards the end of the brutal British indentured labor system, the so-called Fijian “Girmit” system). Educated under a colonial British system in Fiji and thence at high school and university in Australia, she was completely unaware of these immense catastrophes that had befallen her people. No members of her extremely numerous family I quizzed about this had ever heard of the Bengal famines. However Zareena being a well educated lady of the British Empire was well aware of Jane Austen and indeed introduced me to this wonderful writer through the novel “Northanger Abbey” - when I was about 50 years old, I must confess. This novel (only published after Jane Austen’s death because of – you guessed it – “English censorship”) contained an extraordinary speech by the heroine Catherine Moreland’s “lover” Henry Tilney in which he reprimands her for imagining some family horror buried in the gothic Northanger Abbey:
"If I understand you rightly, you have formed a surmise of such horror as I have hardly words to -. Dear Miss Morland, consider the dreadful nature of the suspicions you have entertained. What have you been judging from? Remember the country and the age in which we live. Remember that we are English, that we are Christians. Consult your own understanding, your own sense of the probable, your own observation of what is passing around you. Does our education prepare us for such atrocities? Do our laws connive at them? Could they be perpetrated without being known, in a country like this, where social and literary intercourse is on such a footing, where every man is surrounded by a neighbourhood of voluntary spies, and where roads and newspapers lay everything open? Dearest Miss Morland, what ideas have you been admitting? " 12
From the little I have told you above about British imperial lying by omission that continues today in Britain and its colonial progeny, the answers to Henry Tilney’s questions about “connivance” and “perpetration” must in both cases be a resounding YES.
At this point my research widened into a more general inquiry into how such enormous crimes could be deleted from public perception in prosperous, literate, ostensibly free and democratic British –based societies. My eclectic book expanded to span literature, history and science, taking its cue from the admonition that history ignored yields history repeated. In introducing and leavening this sombre subject, my book initially deals with our heroine, Jane Austen, her life, connections, work and critics and describes the artistically legitimate, narrow social confinement of her novels. However such extraordinary selectivity has been illegitimately applied by a large body of “Austenizing” historians to whitewash colonial enormities and indeed Jane Austen and her Indian and other interesting connections have also been significantly “Austenized” as described in Chapter 5 of my book.
Specifically, “Jane Austen and the Black Hole of British History” deals with the Great Bengal Famine of 1769-1770 that killed 10 million people shortly after subjugation of Bengal by the rapacious British East India Company. This holocaust has been effectively deleted from history as have a further 2 centuries of such disasters in British India that culminated in the man-made Bengal Famine of 1943-1945 that killed as many as 4 million people in Bengal alone. The war-time Bengal Famine accounted for over 90% of total British Empire civilian plus military casualties of that conflict but has been effectively deleted from public perception.
The “forgotten holocaust” of Bengal occurred at the same time as the Jewish Holocaust and precise connections between these 2 horrendous events are explored in the book. However the people of Bengal - and indeed Third World people in general - are facing a major crisis in food availability in the 21st century occasioned by environmental degradation, industry-induced global warming, declining grain production, massive plant food diversion for biofuel and meat production and burgeoning populations. By honestly addressing the “forgotten holocausts” of the colonial past we can put resolution to the post-Holocaust crie de coeur “Never Again” and seriously address the crisis in biological sustainability that threatens the Third World and indeed the world as a whole.
The final chapters of my book dealt with the crisis in biological sustainability facing the world, the Australian response after 2 centuries of genocide, ethnocide and ecocide and how lessons from this resurrection of the “forgotten holocausts” of British history can guide us to humane solutions and prevent a catastrophe. My pessimistic view was that if a prosperous, educated, liberal democracy such as Australia would not respond to this moral message then why would less fortunate societies? That view has been justified by subsequent events as briefly outlined below.
I spent a lot of time and money trying to find a publisher for “Jane Austen and the Black Hole of British History” but my efforts failed in the aridity of remorseless and intrinsically racist Anglo-American holocaust-ignoring and holocaust denial. I accordingly published the book myself and sent copies to some major libraries, some major global figures and some decent writers and journalists. 13 The most amusing response I received was from the British Foreign Office on beautiful, thick, embossed paper: “The Prime Minister has instructed us to read your book. We have done so. Yours etc”.
Nevertheless, publication of the book elicited useful responses from decent, anti-racist, humanitarian advocates from around the world. The nascent Sulekha organization (now the biggest Indian literary website in the world) commissioned me to write about this. 14 I gave lectures and interviews and published articles in magazines and books over the subsequent years. 15 I even made a nation-wide broadcast on the Australian ABC science program Ockham’s Razor entitled “Bengali Famine” due to the intelligence and humanity of outstanding science journalist Robyn Williams who, in introducing my broadcast, said: “Can you turn science to history? To test it, I mean? You can't really do experiments on the past, so how could it be applied? Dr Gideon Polya insists that science does have a role in this regard, and he'll explain in a minute. But the point of such an exercise is important here, because the reason for Dr Polya's concern (and he's written a book about it) is one of the worst genocides on record, or not on record, unless you search long and hard.” 16
Well, I was not discouraged from my duty as a decent human being but was very disappointed by this extraordinary mainstream media, politician and academic refusal to acknowledge events of such enormity – behaviour that I have described as “politically correct racism” (PC racism) in which endlessly politically correct people and societies remorselessly ignore horrendous abuses at their hands of subject people of other races.
I continued with my extremely busy career as a teacher and researcher. In 2003, after some years of 7-days a week work, I published a huge pharmacological reference text "Biochemical Targets of Plant Bioactive Compounds. A pharmacological reference guide to sites of action and biological effects" (CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, New York & London, 2003). There was space in the 500 pages of detailed tables in this huge reference book for succinct, relevant, historical and cultural “snippets” and I made sure that the Awful Truth of the WW2 Bengal Famine was briefly mentioned in relevant places for the benefit of a generally scientific readership. 17
I left full-time academic scientific work at this point and immediately devoted myself to researching a more general approach to this problem of Mainstream holocaust-ignoring that encompassed an even wider global perspective (in addition to part-time university and other tertiary institution science teaching, giving courses to the Australian University of the Third Age and a huge amount of humanitarian writing and advocacy published beyond the PC racist, Antipodean Land of Flies, Lies and Slies).
In short, my widened approach involved rational risk management (that, for example, makes aviation exceptionally safe). Rational risk management successively involves (a) getting accurate data about adverse events, (b) scientific analysis (this involving the critical testing of potentially falsifiable hypotheses) and (c) systemic change to minimize the risk of repetition of adverse events. 18 Unfortunately, as we are all too aware, this rational protocol is typically perverted by (a) lies, censorship and intimidation, (b) anti-science spin (involving the selective use of asserted facts to support a partisan proposition, and (c) blame and shame with no systemic change.
This perversion of rational risk management now threatens the Third World with climate change-driven decrease in agricultural productivity and huge global food price rises due to diversion of food for biofuel, climate change and globalization-based demand from the new Asian giants India and China 19. Humanity as a whole is acutely endangered due to the threat to the Biosphere from anthropogenic global warming. 20
Top American climate change scientist Dr James Hansen (head, NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York City and adjunct Professor at Columbia University) has recently asserted that at 385 ppm (parts per million) atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration the world has already reached a tipping point at which all Arctic summer ice may be gone in several years rather than several decades, with immense implications for accelerating melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the methane-rich American and Siberian tundra with consequent huge sea level rises. He advocates the need to rapidly reduce atmospheric CO2 concentration to a safe and sustainable level of 300-350 ppm. Dr Hansen indicates that this will require cessation of fossil fuel burning and reduction of atmospheric CO2 by re-afforestation, return of carbon to the soil as biomass-derived biochar and, if needed, generation of “global dimming” SO2 aerosols. 21
In a recent paper Dr Hansen and colleagues have provided a daunting prospect: “Paleoclimate data show that climate sensitivity is ~3 deg-C for doubled CO2 [carbon dioxide; atmospheric CO2 280 ppm pre-industrial], including only fast feedback processes. Equilibrium sensitivity, including slower surface albedo feedbacks, is ~6 deg-C for doubled CO2 for the range of climate states between glacial conditions and ice-free Antarctica. Decreasing CO2 was the main cause of a cooling trend that began 50 million years ago, large scale glaciation occurring when CO2 fell to 450 +/- 100 ppm [parts per million], a level that will be exceeded within decades, barring prompt policy changes. If humanity wishes to preserve a planet similar to that on which civilization developed and to which life on Earth is adapted, paleoclimate evidence and ongoing climate change suggest that CO2 will need to be reduced from its current 385 ppm to at most 350 ppm”. 22
Top UK climate scientist Dr James Lovelock FRS has dire projections in “The Revenge of Gaia” (2006): “I describe a simple model where the sensitive part of the Earth system is the ocean; as it warms, so the area of the sea that can support the growth of algae grows smaller as it is driven ever closer to the poles, until algal growth ceases. The discontinuity comes because algae in the ocean both pump down carbon dioxide [by photosynthesis] and produce clouds [through cloud-seeding dimethyl sulphide production]. Algae floating in the ocean actively remove carbon dioxide from the air and use it for growth; we call the process “pumping down” to distinguish it from the passive and reversible removal of carbon dioxide as it dissolves in rain or sea water. The threshold for the failure of the algae is about 500 parts per million (ppm) of carbon dioxide, about the same as it is for Greenland’s unstoppable melting”. More recently (2007) Dr Lovelock has said that over 6 billion people will perish this century if climate change is not urgently and requisitely addressed. 23
However a combination of biofuel-, climate change- and globalization-driven food price hikes (wheat price has doubled in 12 months, rice price has doubled in 3 months) means that the world is now facing a disaster possibly 100 times greater than the man-made, food-price-driven Bengal Famine that killed 6-7 million in Bengal and adjoining provinces when the price of rice ultimately quadrupled. The United States (US) is currently using about 9% of its wheat, 25% of its corn and about 15% of its grain in general to produce biofuel. The United Kingdom (UK) has committed to large increases in the use of biofuels over coming decades, has recently announced subsidies for biofuel and supports the European Union (EU) target requiring 10 per cent of petrol station fuel to be plant-derived biofuel within 12 years. However the huge and intrinsically genocidal US diversion of 15% of its grain crop to biofuel production has had a huge impact already on soaring global food prices – the world is already facing a global food crisis with alarm being expressed by UN, FAO and other scientific experts. 24
Thus the UK Chief Scientific Adviser, Professor John Beddington CMG, FRS (Professor of Applied Population Biology at Imperial College, London.) has described the devastating potential of food shortages as an "elephant in the room" problem commensurate with that from climate change and warns that biofuel diversion (e.g. for canola oil- or palm oil-derived biodiesel and grain- or sugar-derived ethanol) is threatening world food production and the lives of “billions”: "It's very hard to imagine how we can see the world growing enough crops to produce renewable energy and at the same time meet the enormous demand for food. The supply of food really isn't keeping up." 25
We are running out of oil and the price of crude oil has now exceeded US$100 per barrel. However the proposition that crop-based biofuels represent a “green” solution to fossil fuel burning and the “peak oil” phenomenon has been shown to be incorrect. Recent US research by Fargione and co-workers and published in the prestigious scientific journal Science has shown that diversion of land to growing biofuel crops can produce an enormous “CO2 debt” from use of machinery, fertilizers, release of carbon from the soil and loss of CO2 sequestration by trees and other plants:
“Increasing energy use, climate change, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels make switching to low-carbon fuels a high priority. Biofuels are a potential low-carbon energy source, but whether biofuels offer carbon savings depends on how they are produced. Converting rainforests, peatlands, savannas, or grasslands to produce food crop–based biofuels in Brazil, Southeast Asia, and the United States creates a "biofuel carbon debt" by releasing 17 to 420 times more CO2 than the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions that these biofuels would provide by displacing fossil fuels. In contrast, biofuels made from waste biomass or from biomass grown on degraded and abandoned agricultural lands planted with perennials incur little or no carbon debt and can offer immediate and sustained GHG advantages.” 26
In the first edition of “Jane Austen and the Black Hole of British History” I referred the diaries of General Wavell and observed (p141): “On October 15 1943 in Cairo on his way out to India, Wavell inspected Indian troops and spoke to Casey about food. Casey said Australia had had a bad wheat harvest, Canada could just supply U.S. and British deficiencies and that the Argentinians had burnt their surplus of 2 million tons as fuel on the railways in the absence of coal, of which there was a world shortage.” 27 Now in 2008 Americans and Europeans are burning biofuel in their cars while 4 billion fellow human beings on Spaceship Earth are malnourished and facing starvation.
In assessing adverse outcomes the bottom line is excess death (avoidable death, avoidable mortality, excess mortality, deaths that should not have happened). Excess deaths for a country can be calculated from the difference between deaths actually occurring and deaths expected for a peaceful country with the same demographics. Thus the over 6 billion excess deaths predicted by Professor Lovelock from climate change will overwhelmingly be non-violent excess deaths (although Western military might ensures that the victims will not escape the “passive killing fields”).
In 2007 I published an analysis of global excess death entitled “Body Count. Global avoidable mortality since 1950”. Based on UN Population Division demographic data, it calculated excess death and under-5 infant mortality for every country in the world since 1950. The results are horrendous: 1950-2005 excess deaths totalled 1.3 billion (for the world), 1.2 billion (for the non-European world) and 0.6 billion (for the Muslim world). These horrendous estimates are consonant with independently determined estimates for 1950-2005 under-5 infant deaths of 0.88 billion (the World), 0.85 billion (the non-European world) and 0.4 billion (the Muslim world). 28
As you might well imagine, such information is unacceptable to racist, lying Mainstream media and politicians and unacceptable to the same Anglo-American publishing culture that has kept most people ignorant of the World War 2 Bengali Holocaust. Ever the optimist about human nature, I wasted much time and money looking for a Mainstream publisher and ultimately published myself. I have sent over one hundred copies of “Body Count” to libraries and humanitarians around the world to assist their humanitarian advocacy – and to contribute intelligently to the first key step of global risk management, namely provision of fundamental adverse outcome data.
Unfortunately we live in an obscene world of massive lying by omission in which the politically correct racist (PC racist) corporate, media, politician and academic Establishments of the Western Murdochracies simply do not want to know about the consequences of their actions.
At this point one has to turn to one of the world’s most important bioethicists for guidance. Professor Peter Singer (De Camp Professor of bioethics at Princeton University, a professor at the University of Melbourne and held by some to be the world’s most influential living philosopher because of his work on animal rights) has stated: “we are responsible for what we do and for what we fail to do.” 29
Professor Singer has controversially argued for the humane “active euthanasia” of severely disabled infants. At present many experienced hospital doctors will administer pain relief but not sustenance to such infants by way of “passive euthanasia”. According to Singer:
“Doctors who deliberately leave a baby to die when they have the awareness, the ability, and the opportunity to save the baby’s life, are just as morally responsible for the death as they would be if they had brought it about by a deliberate , positive action.” 30
These ethical injunctions are acutely relevant to Spaceship Earth on which 4 billion hover near starvation with an over-fed First World in charge of the flight deck. Indeed they become more acutely relevant when there is mass avoidable mortality in countries under violent First World occupation such as Occupied Haiti, Occupied Somalia, Occupied Palestine, Occupied Syria, Occupied Iraq and Occupied Afghanistan. We must note that it is extremely rare for Asian, African or Latin American countries to invade and occupy other countries – the only such countries involved in such obscenities at the moment are US-backed Ethiopia (in Occupied Somalia), US-backed Turkey (in Northern Cyprus) and US-backed Apartheid Israel (in Occupied Syria and Occupied Palestine).
Thus “Year 2005 under-5 infant deaths” / “year 2005 population” is 370,000 / 29.9 million (Occupied Afghanistan); 122,000 / 28.8 million (Occupied Iraq); 82,000 / 8.2 million (Occupied Somalia); 31,000 / 8.5 million (Occupied Haiti); and 3,000 / 3.7 million (Occupied Palestinian Territory) – as compared to 1,500 / 20.2 million (Occupi-er Australia) and 800 / 6.4 million (Occupi-er Israel).
“Year 2005 annual under-5 infant death rate” (i.e. as a percentage: deaths for every 100 under-5 year old infants in 2005 in a particular country) was 6.7% (Occupied Afghanistan); 2.8% (Occupied Iraq); 5.5% (Occupied Somalia); 2.7% (Occupied Haiti); and 0.47% (Occupied Palestinian Territory) – as compared to 0.12% (Occupi-er Australia) and 0.12% (Occupi-er Israel). 31
My book “Body Count” gave details of excess mortality for every country in the world since 1950, laboriously estimated using conservative assumptions (it took over a year to do these calculations, country by country in 5 year steps (or pentades). However, an empowering method for estimating “excess deaths” arose from the completed analysis. Thus for impoverished Third World countries the under-5 infant deaths are about 0.7 (70%) of the excess deaths for all age groups. Accordingly, if you know the under-5 infant deaths for such countries (e.g. from UNICEF or UN Population Division data) you can quickly estimate the excess deaths by dividing this number by 0.7. 32
A major contributor to the carnage in Occupied Palestine, Occupied Iraq and Occupied Afghanistan is the war criminal failure of the Occupiers to supply life-sustaining requisites as demanded unequivocally by the Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Thus, according the World Health Organization (WHO), the “annual total per capita medical expenditure” permitted in Occupied Iraq by the US Coalition is $135 (2004) as compared to $19 (Occupied Afghanistan), $2,560 (UK), $3,123 (Australia) and $6,096 (the US). 33
It is useful here to present the relevant articles of the Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War 34:
To the fullest extent of the means available to it the Occupying Power has the duty of ensuring the food and medical supplies of the population; it should, in particular, bring in the necessary foodstuffs, medical stores and other articles if the resources of the occupied territory are inadequate.
The Occupying Power may not requisition foodstuffs, articles or medical supplies available in the occupied territory, except for use by the occupation forces and administration personnel, and then only if the requirements of the civilian population have been taken into account. Subject to the provisions of other international Conventions, the Occupying Power shall make arrangements to ensure that fair value is paid for any requisitioned goods.
The Protecting Power shall, at any time, be at liberty to verify the state of the food and medical supplies in occupied territories, except where temporary restrictions are made necessary by imperative military requirements.
To the fullest extent of the means available to it, the Occupying Power has the duty of ensuring and maintaining, with the cooperation of national and local authorities, the medical and hospital establishments and services, public health and hygiene in the occupied territory, with particular reference to the adoption and application of the prophylactic and preventive measures necessary to combat the spread of contagious diseases and epidemics. Medical personnel of all categories shall be allowed to carry out their duties.
If new hospitals are set up in occupied territory and if the competent organs of the occupied State are not operating there, the occupying authorities shall, if necessary, grant them the recognition provided for in Article 18. In similar circumstances, the occupying authorities shall also grant recognition to hospital personnel and transport vehicles under the provisions of Articles 20 and 21.
In adopting measures of health and hygiene and in their implementation, the Occupying Power shall take into consideration the moral and ethical susceptibilities of the population of the occupied territory.
The infant deaths, the excess deaths and the legal obligations of Occupiers in these Occupied Countries are clear – but lying, racist, holocaust-ignoring mainstream media, politicians and mendicant academics simply look the other way – just as they have looked the other way in relation to the Bengal Famine and indeed the whole 2 century horror of British rule over India. It can be estimated that excess deaths in British India totalled 1.5 billion – a number that would astonish Anglo-Celts (and indeed many of their Subjects) brought up on the myth of Pax Britannica and the nobility of British civilization.
The perversion of rational risk management through successive (a) lying, (b) spin and (c) blame and shame (with war being the ultimate obscenity) is horribly illustrated by the remorseless post-1950 US Asian wars that have so far been associated with 25 million Indigenous Asian excess deaths (mostly non-violent and mostly women and children). Each war was associated with false and shabby “justifications” – the only real basis was US geo-political strategy.
The Korean War was associated with about 1 million excess deaths. Only 3 years after the end of the Indo-China War (excess deaths totalling 13 million) the US embarked on backing a fundamentalist Muslim war against the pro-woman, socialist régime in Afghanistan, this eventually precipitating a Soviet invasion in 1979 and a war that was associated with excess deaths totalling 2.9 million for the period 1979-1989. The subsequent civil war was associated with 3.3 million excess deaths in the period 1989-1999.
After 9/11 the Bush Administration told the appropriate stories. While no Afghans or Iraqis had been involved in the attacks according to the official Bush story, both Afghanistan and Iraq were bombed, invaded and occupied with horrendous loss of life. Two US think tanks have recently reported that the Bush Administration told a total of 935 lies about Iraq alone in the post-9/11 pre-invasion period (e.g. false assertions of Iraqi-Al Qaeda links, uranium oxide supplies and Weapons of Mass Destruction being the most notorious lies). 35
Indeed there is widespread expert, intelligence and scholarly scepticism about many aspects of the “official 9/11 story”. A substantial proportion of Americans believe that their government was at least passively complicit in the atrocity. Even former Vice President Al Gore, while dismissing complicity assertions, has lambasted the Bush Administration for criminal negligence prior to 9/11. 36
In November 2007 the former 7-year president of Italy, law professor, senator-for-life and Western intelligence intimate, Franceso Cossiga, told a top Italian newspaper that the US CIA and Israeli Mossad were responsible for 9/11, had done this to enhance US and Zionist interests and that Western intelligence agencies were aware of this. 37
The consequences of this horrendous violence, lying, spin and blame-and-shame perversion of rational risk management has been terror hysteria, anti-Arab anti-Semitism and Islamophobia, huge violations of civil rights domestically and of human rights abroad and Western involvement in horrendous war crimes in Muslim lands. Post-invasion excess deaths in the Occupied Palestinian, Iraqi and Afghan Territories (as of March 2008) total 0.3 million, 1.7-2.2 million and 3.3-6.6 million, respectively, and there are 7 million, 4.5 million and 4 million refugees, respectively. 38
The Western world is variously complicit in UK state terrorism, US state terrorism, US-backed Israeli state terrorism and Palestinian Genocide, Iraqi Genocide and Afghan Genocide, noting that “genocide” is here defined according to Article 2 of the UN Genocide Convention: “In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: a) Killing members of the group; b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group”. 39
What can decent people do? Peace is the only way but silence kills and silence is complicity. Decent people are obliged to bear witness, to get through the Mainstream media Wall of Silence and to inform others about these atrocities. Informing others is the first step in the rational risk management process that successively involves (a) data, (b) science and (c) systemic change. Since publishing the first edition of “Jane Austen and the Black Hole of British History”, “informing others” is what I have been doing, with “Body Count. Global avoidable mortality since 1950” a major vehicle of this pro-Peace, pro-Truth, humanitarian enterprise.
I have been lecturing, broadcasting and writing thousands of articles and letters to media around the world. I have also made formal complaints to the International Criminal Court (ICC), most recently submitting a detailed complaint against Australia for on-going Australian complicity in Indigenous Genocide (Aboriginal Genocide, 90,000 excess Indigenous Australian deaths 1996-2007; Iraqi Genocide, 1.5-2 million Indigenous Occupied Iraqi excess deaths in 2003-2007; Afghan Genocide, 3-6 million Indigenous Occupied Afghanistan excess deaths in 2001-2007) and Climate Genocide (complete loss of some Island Nations; 16 million avoidable deaths globally each year and increasingly climate change-impacted; and over 6 billion deaths predicted by the end of the century due to greenhouse gas pollution profligacy; and with Australia being the World’s worst developed country for annual per capita CO2 pollution). 40
This Second Edition has essentially only involved minor clarification of the Jane Austen family tree and typographical and other minor corrections to the 1998 First Edition text. Accordingly, in reading the main text please remember that it was written 10 years ago and referenced by a literature available then. However in addition to this Preface, detailed, documented Postscript comments at the end of each chapter bring the text up to date and thus provide a cogent record of Anglo-American Alliance holocaust commission, holocaust denial, genocide commission, genocide denial and “History ignored yielding History repeated” in the decade since the publication of the First Edition.
Dr Gideon Polya